Recorded history shows that in the 5th century AD, traders plying the east-west trade route stopped at the port of Kuala Muda, using Gunung Jerai, Kedah's highest peak, as a navigational point.

The ruins of ancient Candi (temples) in the Bujang Valley show that a Hindu-Buddhist civilization existed here and may have been one of the first places to have come into contact with Indian traders. How important this kingdom was, is still being researched as more artifacts are unearthed.

During the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah paid tribute to the Sumatran Srivijaya Empire. After the decline of the empire, it became a vassal state to the Thais until the 15th Century when the rise of Malacca led to the Islamization of the area. Kedah faced Portuguese and Achehnese attacks in the 17th century, but it again fell into Thai hands in 1821.

The Thais handed Kedah over to the British in 1909, and after the Japanese occupation, it became one of the states of the Malayan Union and subsequently the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

All My Friends


Friday, June 4, 2010

What is the difference between CB Radio and Ham Radio?

Many people think CB Radio and Ham Radio (that's licensed, trained Amateur Radio operators) are one and the same thing. There are some similarities, yes, but the differences are like chalk and cheese.
CB or the Citizens Band Radio Service is where the FCC allows untrained and unlicensed individuals to use low-powered two-way radios radios for personal or business use.CB radios are limited to a power output of 5 Watts AM or 12 Watts PEP (in single sideband/SSB mode). These 2 way radios operate in the 27 MHz HF (shortwave) band, and people using them are only permitted to talk to others within the United States. No overseas (DX) contacts are allowed. The CB radio service has 40 channels assigned to it. Since each channel can be used in AM mode or as USB (upper sideband) or LSB (lower sideband) in single-sideband mode, some folks like to imagine they have 80 or 120 channels. But that's not quite right.
Single sideband transceivers (SSB two-way radios) cost more than AM transceivers because they use more complex circuitry, and they take a little more skill to operate properly. In return, the SSB radio signals will almost always 'get through' over longer distances, and in poorer atmospheric conditions than an AM signal can manage.
Ham Radio (officially called the Amateur Radio Service) is where people who have studied two-way radios, antennas and US and international regulations - and who have passed an examination (and paid a fee) are allowed to communicate with other radio hams in their own country and with other licensed radio hams around the world.Ham Radios (Amateur Radio equipment) can range in power from less than 1 Watt to 1000 Watts, and it isn't the equipment that gets licensed... It is the person operating it.
Most handheld ham radios would be 5 Watts or less, but mobiles are usually between 10 and 100 Watts, most HF amateur radio base stations are 100 or 200 Watts, and hams are allowed to use linear amplifiers that give them up to 1000 or 2000 Watts of power.On top of this, Amateur Radio Operators (Hams) are permitted to use large antennas on towers that may be 30 feet, 50 feet or higher in the air, plus all kinds of fancy sophisticated antenna systems to send out a highly directional transmitter beam. Like yagi or quad antennas.Why do radio Hams have all these privileges that CBers do not? It comes back to the licensing and the expertise that Hams/Amateur Radio Operators study for.
They are supposed to have the skills to set up and operate their two-way radio hobby, and to do it without causing any radio interference to their neighbors or to other radio users.Amateur Radio operators also have to know how to handle emergency radio traffic, which is admittedly quite rare. (It seems to happen much more in the movies.) Licensed Hams are taught not to interfere if distress traffic is taking place. One takes control, and the others know to shut up and just listen. But that is another subject.




eQSL Card (Recieved)

eQSL Card (Recieved)

igq107 QSL Card

igq107 QSL Card


“send a postcard and receive a postcard back from a random person somewhere in the world!”


Amateur radio service is defined in the Communication and Multimedia (Spectrum) Regulations 2000 as a radiocommunications service (covering both terrestrial and satellite) in which a station is used for the purpose of self traning, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by authorized persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without any pecuniary interest.


Regulation 27(1) of the Communications and Multimedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall undertake or conduct any activity in designated skil area unless that person is certified. Amateur radio operator has been gazetted as a designated skill area category under the regulation, hence to operate an amateur radio station a person needs to have an appropriate proficiency and skill i.e. certified in this area.


Please ensure that the radio transmision does not cause interference to any other radio services. Regulation 15(1) of the Communications and Multemedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall intentionally design, install, operate, maintain or modify any communications equipment in a manner is likely to cause interference with, impairment, mulfunction of, or harm to any communications equipment or any other equipment.

Regulation 15(2) of the regulation denotes that a person who contravenes this regulation commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding three hundred thousand ringgit (RM 300,000.00) or to imprisonment for a term of not exceeding three years or to both.

To eliminate the potential of interferences, the following procedures must be followed strictly:-

a) Ensure that suffient equipment, tools and test gear is available and can used to monitor and verify that your transmission does not cause any interference to other radio services.

b) You must responsible if your amateur radio is found to be the caused of interference. Immediate remedy action must be taken to rectify the problems in case of interference.

c) Ensure that the transmission do not exceed the level of over deviation.

d) Ensure that the radiated energy is always within the narrowest posible frequency bands for any class of emission in use.

e) The radiation of harmonics and spurious emissions should be suppressed to minimize interference.

Historical Description of Amateur Radio: From the Encyclopedia Britannica:-

Interest in amateur radio arose around the turn of the century, shortly after the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901. The interference of amateur broadcasts with commercial and military transmissions led to the institution of government control in 1911. After World War I, amateurs became active in radio experimentation, contributing to developments in long-distance broadcasting and becoming the first radio operators successfully to exploit the upper medium-frequency and lower high-frequency radio bands. Over the years, amateur radio operators have also provided emergency communications during forest fires, floods, hurricanes, and other disasters. They serve as an important link between stricken communities and the outside world until normal communications are reestablished.Amateur radio operators in the United States are subject to international and federal regulations. There are five classes of licenses. Competence in the use of the International Morse Code and a knowledge of radio theory and regulation are required to obtain the advanced-level licenses. Amateur radio is allocated frequencies at the extreme high-frequency end of the medium-wave band, five groups of frequencies in the shortwave band, two groups in the veryhigh-frequency band, three in the ultrahigh-frequency band, and seven in the superhigh-frequency band for telegraphic and telephonic communication using amplitude and frequency modulation. There are restrictions on the power of the transmitters, and certain of the frequencies must be shared with due regard for the needs of other users.
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DIY Printed circuit board

How To Make A PCB




FOX TX with MP3 PLAYER Function as CWID'er (YC5NBX)