ABOUT KEDAH HISTORY

Recorded history shows that in the 5th century AD, traders plying the east-west trade route stopped at the port of Kuala Muda, using Gunung Jerai, Kedah's highest peak, as a navigational point.

The ruins of ancient Candi (temples) in the Bujang Valley show that a Hindu-Buddhist civilization existed here and may have been one of the first places to have come into contact with Indian traders. How important this kingdom was, is still being researched as more artifacts are unearthed.

During the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah paid tribute to the Sumatran Srivijaya Empire. After the decline of the empire, it became a vassal state to the Thais until the 15th Century when the rise of Malacca led to the Islamization of the area. Kedah faced Portuguese and Achehnese attacks in the 17th century, but it again fell into Thai hands in 1821.

The Thais handed Kedah over to the British in 1909, and after the Japanese occupation, it became one of the states of the Malayan Union and subsequently the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

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From the NACA to NASA: 95 Years of Innovation in Flight

Clad in a fur lined leather flying suit with oxygen facepiece, NACA test pilot Paul King prepares to take to the air in a Vought VE-7. Image credit: NACA
Metal workers fabricate cowlings for early test installations. Image credit: NACA
Two mechanics pose near the entrance end of the first wind tunnel at the NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The air intake's screened center insured a steady, nonturbulent flow of air. Image credit: NACA

Ninety-five years ago a committee of 12 volunteers with a budget of $5,000 embarked on a mission to change the face of U.S. aviation, and in doing so established a legacy of innovative aeronautical research that continues at NASA today. Established by Congress on March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or the NACA, convened its first meeting a few weeks later with marching orders to "supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of flight, with a view to their practical solutions." By the time the NACA morphed into NASA in 1958, the nation's best and brightest aeronautical engineers had established world-class laboratories, steadfastly pioneered the unknown of flight and won five Collier Trophies, the greatest honor in aviation. "In fact, there are no production airplanes flying anywhere in the world today that do not rely on some technology derived from NACA research," said Jaiwon Shin, associate administrator for NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate in Washington.
When the NACA was formed, a dozen years had passed since the Wright Brothers made their historic flight at Kitty Hawk, and Americans had yet to embrace the airplane. We were more impressed in 1915 by Henry Ford producing his one millionth automobile. Aeronautical researchers in Europe, however, were more aggressive in developing the airplane and by the time World War I began in 1914 the United States was behind the world in aviation. Forming the NACA was a direct response to that situation. Laboratories in Virginia, California and Ohio were constructed and soon became the centers of aviation research tasked by the committee. It was at these places known as Langley, Ames, Dryden and Lewis that the NACA made some of the most important contributions to aviation. They included development of a Cowling to improve the cooling of a radial engine, which also reduced drag on the aircraft. Wind tunnel that can simulate air density at different altitudes, which engineers used to design and test dozens of wing cross-section shapes. Wind tunnel with slots in its wall that allowed researchers to take measurements of aerodynamic forces at near supersonic speeds.
Design principle involving the shape of an aircraft's wing in relation to the rest of the airplane to reduce drag and allow supersonic flight. In addition to the technical discoveries, one of the greatest contributions of the NACA was its insistence on producing and widely distributing its reports, memoranda and notes, which allowed the rest of the aviation community to take full advantage of the research results. All of these contributions continue to be in use today and further opened the doors to enhancement as research methods and technology improved, namely going from the slide rule to the desktop computer. The NACA ceased to exist in its own right on Sept. 30, 1958—becoming the foundation for NASA, which opened for business the next day.
By that time, the jet age had arrived and NACA researchers already were studying problems regarding spaceflight, including how to return an object in space through Earth's atmosphere. Overnight, NASA inherited a generation of experience in managing government research projects, operating the finest laboratories and wind tunnels, and training the brightest aeronautical engineers to conduct cutting-edge research. The rapid rise of the space program that followed, and NASA's ability to successfully answer President Kennedy's challenge to the moon would not have been possible without that firm foundation laid by the NACA. The NACA's spirit and innovative approach to research continues today, said Richard P. Hallion, a respected aviation historian and author of the NASA publication On the Frontier: Flight Research at Dryden, 1946-1981. "The fact that we had an NACA serves today as an inspiration to our modern aeronautics researchers, many of whom are working in the same facilities created in the heyday of the NACA. They remain committed to the same quest for excellence as the original trailblazers."

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THE POSTCARD CROSSING PROJECT

THE POSTCARD CROSSING PROJECT
“send a postcard and receive a postcard back from a random person somewhere in the world!”

ABOUT AMATEUR RADIO

Amateur radio service is defined in the Communication and Multimedia (Spectrum) Regulations 2000 as a radiocommunications service (covering both terrestrial and satellite) in which a station is used for the purpose of self traning, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by authorized persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without any pecuniary interest.

AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR'S CERTIFICATE

Regulation 27(1) of the Communications and Multimedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall undertake or conduct any activity in designated skil area unless that person is certified. Amateur radio operator has been gazetted as a designated skill area category under the regulation, hence to operate an amateur radio station a person needs to have an appropriate proficiency and skill i.e. certified in this area.

INTERFERENCE

Please ensure that the radio transmision does not cause interference to any other radio services. Regulation 15(1) of the Communications and Multemedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall intentionally design, install, operate, maintain or modify any communications equipment in a manner is likely to cause interference with, impairment, mulfunction of, or harm to any communications equipment or any other equipment.

Regulation 15(2) of the regulation denotes that a person who contravenes this regulation commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding three hundred thousand ringgit (RM 300,000.00) or to imprisonment for a term of not exceeding three years or to both.

To eliminate the potential of interferences, the following procedures must be followed strictly:-

a) Ensure that suffient equipment, tools and test gear is available and can used to monitor and verify that your transmission does not cause any interference to other radio services.

b) You must responsible if your amateur radio is found to be the caused of interference. Immediate remedy action must be taken to rectify the problems in case of interference.

c) Ensure that the transmission do not exceed the level of over deviation.

d) Ensure that the radiated energy is always within the narrowest posible frequency bands for any class of emission in use.

e) The radiation of harmonics and spurious emissions should be suppressed to minimize interference.

Historical Description of Amateur Radio: From the Encyclopedia Britannica:-

Interest in amateur radio arose around the turn of the century, shortly after the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901. The interference of amateur broadcasts with commercial and military transmissions led to the institution of government control in 1911. After World War I, amateurs became active in radio experimentation, contributing to developments in long-distance broadcasting and becoming the first radio operators successfully to exploit the upper medium-frequency and lower high-frequency radio bands. Over the years, amateur radio operators have also provided emergency communications during forest fires, floods, hurricanes, and other disasters. They serve as an important link between stricken communities and the outside world until normal communications are reestablished.Amateur radio operators in the United States are subject to international and federal regulations. There are five classes of licenses. Competence in the use of the International Morse Code and a knowledge of radio theory and regulation are required to obtain the advanced-level licenses. Amateur radio is allocated frequencies at the extreme high-frequency end of the medium-wave band, five groups of frequencies in the shortwave band, two groups in the veryhigh-frequency band, three in the ultrahigh-frequency band, and seven in the superhigh-frequency band for telegraphic and telephonic communication using amplitude and frequency modulation. There are restrictions on the power of the transmitters, and certain of the frequencies must be shared with due regard for the needs of other users.
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