ABOUT KEDAH HISTORY

Recorded history shows that in the 5th century AD, traders plying the east-west trade route stopped at the port of Kuala Muda, using Gunung Jerai, Kedah's highest peak, as a navigational point.

The ruins of ancient Candi (temples) in the Bujang Valley show that a Hindu-Buddhist civilization existed here and may have been one of the first places to have come into contact with Indian traders. How important this kingdom was, is still being researched as more artifacts are unearthed.

During the 7th and 8th centuries, Kedah paid tribute to the Sumatran Srivijaya Empire. After the decline of the empire, it became a vassal state to the Thais until the 15th Century when the rise of Malacca led to the Islamization of the area. Kedah faced Portuguese and Achehnese attacks in the 17th century, but it again fell into Thai hands in 1821.

The Thais handed Kedah over to the British in 1909, and after the Japanese occupation, it became one of the states of the Malayan Union and subsequently the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

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Monday, March 8, 2010

EARTH HOUR

Earth Hour started in 2007 in Sydney, Australia when 2.2 million homes and businesses turned their lights off for one hour to make their stand against climate change. Only a year later and Earth Hour had become a global sustainability movement with more than 50 million people across 35 countries participating. Global landmarks such as the, Sydney Harbour Bridge, The CN Tower in Toronto, The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, and Rome’s Colosseum, all stood in darkness, as symbols of hope for a cause that grows more urgent by the hour.
In March 2009, hundreds of millions of people took part in the third Earth Hour. Over 4000 cities in 88 countries officially switched off to pledge their support for the planet, making Earth Hour 2009 the world’s largest global climate change initiative. Earth Hour 2010 takes place on Saturday 27 March at 8.30pm (local time) and is a global call to action to every individual, every business and every community throughout the world. It is a call to stand up, to take responsibility, to get involved and lead the way towards a sustainable future. Iconic buildings and landmarks from Europe to Asia to the Americas will stand in darkness. People across the world from all walks of life will turn off their lights and join together in celebration and contemplation of the one thing we all have in common – our planet.
Earth Hour has done a lot to raise awareness of climate change issues. But there’s more to it than switching off lights for one hour once a year. It’s all about giving people a voice on the future of our planet and working together to create a sustainable low carbon future for our planet.
With participation levels now exceeding all expectations, and with more cities and towns signing up every day to be a part of this historic event, the success of Earth Hour 2010 is limited only by the will of the global community to want a say in the future of their planet.
The challenge of Earth Hour is to rethink how we live our lives in the next hour, the next day, and the day after that. It's always darkest before the dawn. Let's make this hour the dawn of a new greener age. Send us an email at green@go-green.ae and let us know what you will be doing this Eath Hour.

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ABOUT AMATEUR RADIO

Amateur radio service is defined in the Communication and Multimedia (Spectrum) Regulations 2000 as a radiocommunications service (covering both terrestrial and satellite) in which a station is used for the purpose of self traning, intercommunication and technical investigations carried out by authorized persons who are interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without any pecuniary interest.

AMATEUR RADIO OPERATOR'S CERTIFICATE

Regulation 27(1) of the Communications and Multimedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall undertake or conduct any activity in designated skil area unless that person is certified. Amateur radio operator has been gazetted as a designated skill area category under the regulation, hence to operate an amateur radio station a person needs to have an appropriate proficiency and skill i.e. certified in this area.

INTERFERENCE

Please ensure that the radio transmision does not cause interference to any other radio services. Regulation 15(1) of the Communications and Multemedia (Technical Standards) Regulations 2000 states that no person shall intentionally design, install, operate, maintain or modify any communications equipment in a manner is likely to cause interference with, impairment, mulfunction of, or harm to any communications equipment or any other equipment.

Regulation 15(2) of the regulation denotes that a person who contravenes this regulation commits an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding three hundred thousand ringgit (RM 300,000.00) or to imprisonment for a term of not exceeding three years or to both.

To eliminate the potential of interferences, the following procedures must be followed strictly:-

a) Ensure that suffient equipment, tools and test gear is available and can used to monitor and verify that your transmission does not cause any interference to other radio services.

b) You must responsible if your amateur radio is found to be the caused of interference. Immediate remedy action must be taken to rectify the problems in case of interference.

c) Ensure that the transmission do not exceed the level of over deviation.

d) Ensure that the radiated energy is always within the narrowest posible frequency bands for any class of emission in use.

e) The radiation of harmonics and spurious emissions should be suppressed to minimize interference.

Historical Description of Amateur Radio: From the Encyclopedia Britannica:-

Interest in amateur radio arose around the turn of the century, shortly after the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi successfully sent the first transatlantic wireless signal in 1901. The interference of amateur broadcasts with commercial and military transmissions led to the institution of government control in 1911. After World War I, amateurs became active in radio experimentation, contributing to developments in long-distance broadcasting and becoming the first radio operators successfully to exploit the upper medium-frequency and lower high-frequency radio bands. Over the years, amateur radio operators have also provided emergency communications during forest fires, floods, hurricanes, and other disasters. They serve as an important link between stricken communities and the outside world until normal communications are reestablished.Amateur radio operators in the United States are subject to international and federal regulations. There are five classes of licenses. Competence in the use of the International Morse Code and a knowledge of radio theory and regulation are required to obtain the advanced-level licenses. Amateur radio is allocated frequencies at the extreme high-frequency end of the medium-wave band, five groups of frequencies in the shortwave band, two groups in the veryhigh-frequency band, three in the ultrahigh-frequency band, and seven in the superhigh-frequency band for telegraphic and telephonic communication using amplitude and frequency modulation. There are restrictions on the power of the transmitters, and certain of the frequencies must be shared with due regard for the needs of other users.
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